tirsdag den 24. maj 2011

Alcohol and beetroot


The purpose of this study, and dertilhørend e report is to determine the influence of alcohol on cell membrane properties. A relate is also to determine whether you can make a baked beetroot in the microwave.

Koehler's Medicinal-Plants 1887

Cell membrane structure and function
Already the first organisms on Earth, it was essential to have a cell membrane, which could work in many different ways: preservation, maintenance of the spacious structure, transport of molecules in and out of, provision of internal environment and ionsammensætning and a clear delineation of what is intra-and extracellular. But while there has been a big increase from the first procaryoter who often have only a single membrane, the more developed organisms cells in their cytoplasm has a lot of membrane systems, all with specific functions.
The basic structure is quite similar for all. A double lipidlag composed of phospholipids, Glycolipids and cholesterol which are embedded proteins, often glycoproteins. Phospoholipider consists of a nonpolar hydrophobic end and a strong polar, hydrophilic end. They are thus amphiphilic, and thus form the hydrocarbon isolated from the aqueous phase a stable hydrophobic structure. On the other hand, the hydrophilic portion is formed hydrogen-ion dipolbindinger which fastens it to the water phase. In this way formed a flashed glass structure where the molecules in the two layers are oriented with the hydrocarbon chains against each other, and the polar groups towards the water phase.

Another important feature is that a double lipidlag will never provide "free edges", ie. that the structures are formed will always be three-dimensional and spacious, and stabilized in this way by curve back into itself.
Cell membrane is the cell kontaktorganel externally, and therefore contains specific transport systems that regulate passage out of and into the cell of the low molecular weight substances which are not or only difficult to penetrate the lipid phase.
Membranes are very dynamic structures, ie. that the lipids form the basic structure and they are semi-liquid at normal temperatures. Therefore lipidmolekylerne and the proteins that are built get into those moving relative to each other, however, only "sideways" in the membrane plane.
Lipiddobbeltlaget gives the explanation of most of the passive membrane properties, while it is especially proteins, allowing the membranes to their special character. Membrane proteins, for example. plasma membrane has many functions, for instance. reception of signals from the outside, transports across the membrane, enzyme function, adhesion (to other cells or the surrounding matrix), etc. These functions are carried out mainly by the so-called trans-membrane proteins. Trans-Membrane Proteins ne has a portion of the amino acid chain present on the outside of the cell, a portion of the membrane and part inside the cytoplasm. Polypeptidkæden of many trans-membrane proteins crosses also mem branes several times. Another group of pro-proteins, peripheral proteins are less tightly linked to the membrane, for example. by binding to transmem brane proteins. Many enzyme systems are built into the membranes where they lie as aggrega ter of molecules in the membrane plane.

Permeability of cell membranes
Cell membrane or plasma membrane, surrounding the cell, and acts in this way to keep track of uddiffusion of solutes in cytoplasm. Such barriers efficiency increases with the size of the dissolved molecule, and is particularly effective against ions (ie water soluble), while uladede molecules with very little Molar mass pass easily, such as oxygen and water. Plasma membrane is mechanically more stable than the cell's internal membranes. This is due to its high content of cholesterol that increases the sum of nonpolar attraction in the membrane lipid phase. This means that the membrane becomes less stiff in the cold and less fluid in heat.
At normal temperature, lipid phase liquid, which is very important for the biological membrane function. The degree of membranfluiditet closing out depends on the amount of polar flour lipids between hydrocarbon chains into the membrane hydrophobic interior. Long hydrocarbon and / or get crack (double bonds) in chains with low fluidity, whereas short chains and many crack alone will increase fluiditeten. Both bacteria and eukaryotic cells regulate membranfluiditet by changing the amount of double bonds.

Alcohol and its influence on cell membranes
In our experiments where we use a beetroot as an illustration of the influence of alcohol cell membrane. In beetroot cells is different cavities and vacuole, and in one of these is an aqueous solution containing the dye betacyanin which gives beetroot its characteristic color. Since this is an aqueous solution, it would under normal circumstances could not penetrate the cell membrane, but in theory should make alcohol cell membrane so that the liquid substance will penetrate. Alcohol, or ethanol, CH3CH2OH, is composed of two parts, one end is the alcohol group-OH (hydroxyl) and the other end consisting of an ethyl group. What is special about alcohol two parts is that they each represent a hydrophobic and a hhydrofil part (again, an amphiphilic). Alcohol group is hydrophilic and therefore will not come into contact with lipidlaget in the cell membrane, it will ethyl group, however. And when this is sitting in the cell membrane, but can not penetrate (see lipofobe part), this group will attract each other, and thus heeling membrane, so that many ion channels banked and made unusable, which will result in an inability to to regulate the passage of ions, including Na + and K +.

Short on spectrophotometer
The method we measure the absorption of light, performed with a known spectrophotometer. Such a device works by sending the light in a specific frequency through a small glass cuvette. This light will then penetrate, the cuvette, where it has not been absorbed by beetroot dye. In other words, the more dye is flowing through the beetroot cell membranes, the more light will be absorbed.

As mentioned before, alcohol, in theory, make the membrane more elastic, and thus alter the permabiliteten to various substances. In this study, it will be reflected in a leakage of the dye betacyanin which could be measured here is therefore a quantitative study.
The experiment begins with the beetroot is cut into pieces of 1.1.2 cm. I and you cut it into pieces, you will come to mechanically cut a lot of cells, and from these will trickle out betacyanin. For this not to be counted in the alcohol, accounting, due beetroot until no more color flows out. They will obviously result in the water, because you do not want to destroy more cells. Then added rødbedeternene at its measuring glass with an alcohol solution at 0%, 10% ... 60%. It must lie in 10 minutes while stirring. Then they made up and placed in the spectrophotometer (see theory) and the results written down.
7 beaker
Ethanol 96%
Pommes Frites Iron

The hypothesis of this experiment will be as follows: In the solution with 0% ethanol, we should not be able to measure any leakage of dye (ie no absorption of light), however, a small error here may be acceptable, since we can not be absolutely sure that all the color was washed away in the first treatment, and while you can during the treatment of beetroot, during the trial, come to further harm cells. From 10% solution up to 60%, we expect a linear increase.

This follows a graphic illustration of the results:

We can see from the graphs of the results that it start with (0% solution) is an absorption of 0.014. From this measurement, and to dissolution with 50% alcohol, the curve rises steadily with a variation of 0.00045 to 0.0027 (under certain solution from 0-10 and 30-40). Then increases the resolution from 50 to 60 with the entire 0021, which is also on the graph gives the expression in a major upswing. The black line is drawn in, indicate the hypothetical curve, which is basically a leakage of 0 by 0% and the end result we assume comes up at the last measurement indicates.

The first one could see from the experiment and this was so before the spectrophotometer was being used was that there was a leakage of dye location. Then we could draw the curve of the results (see above), but it does not fit perfectly with the hypothetical curve. Part of this discrepancy can be explained by two of the points is a bit crooked. The first point that should in theory be zero since water should not be able to get beetroot cell membrane to be amended so that the color could escape. This error may be due to two things: There may have been sitting a little color back after cleaning, or more of the cells are mechanically damaged, either by shaking or washing. The second point which looks suspiciously off it is from the final solution of 60%. Here, we should theoretically see an increase of within the aforesaid area increase from 0.00045 to 0.0027, but it rises only slightly less than ten times more than what lies within the growth area. However, one can say that they pull out these two sources of error from, and draws a line through the first 6 measurements are those at a very nice bar, with a real increase. Another thing about the experiment, which may lead to list of sources of error, is the fact that not all the beetroot pieces are alike. In order to perform the test the best possible one should use the exact same piece of beetroot, but this is of course very nature impossible. The difference in the various pieces lies in the fact that they are taken from different areas of the fruit. The inner pieces were likely to contain less dye, since these cells are older and more severe (ie more structural stiffening body or per. Cell, and therefore less room for vacuole with farveholdig fluid), and the outer is more fresh, and could therefore be expected to include more color.
The experiment shows us that alcohol is crystallized in the beetroot cell membrane and cause a leak. However, one aspect that makes the sometimes insignificant compared to the human condition: You have to be a part of fins to have so much finsprit blood! We're talking in the experiment on a percentage alkoholdel at 40-50 and 60%. This is similar to all identical fluid should have the same strength as strong spirits (Gin, whisk (ey) (y), etc.). When you talk about alcohol in the human organism, we are a maximum of up to 5 ‰. And when we're talking about thousandths (meaning per mille, per. Thousand) it is considered ethanol equivalent to 1 grams per 1000 grams of blood. We will now count the following equation to show how much one must drink to reach beetroot level:
Basically you have to know the person's weight, and thus the person's total body water, as alcohol will partition into this, it is estimated that 55% of the women's weight is water where it is in men is 68%.: A man of 80 kg. Will drink as much as beetroot did by 40% solution: (x = 27)
X represents here the amount of alcohol to be consumed (in mL) and 0.8 indicates the weight of alcohol has. 80 which is in the denominator is the person's weight and multiply that by 0.68, to find out how much of the person (male) weight is fluid. Since we would find a ratio of 40, this equals a BAC of 400 which is the equation result set in. The result says 27,200 mL, which is 27.2 liters of pure alcohol, you would drink other than alcohol, such as a schnapps at 40%, this corresponds to (calculated to 68)
So 68 liters. Is this also for the strong to the subject he could drink beer: (calculated for 1792)
So 1792 bottles of beer, of 33 cl and 4.6%. These arithmetic is only to illustrate that there are percentages will be found in a human. One can also say that if the experiment could be directly transferred to humans, the effects of alcohol would be far more drastic than they really are. A leak of several intracellular molecules would be fatal. But even in small amounts of alcohol can have severe effects. Alcohol works as through its effect on cells as married, so in large quantities, it is even said that it may cause damage to various organs in the body: here is aimed mainly at the liver and pancreas, but also the brain can suffer heavy. In addition, alcohol is addictive, and in Denmark there are approximately 200,000 alcohol abusers, and 1000 people died in Denmark of alcohol abuse. (though this is nothing compared to Russia, where alcohol directly threaten the country's future!)
A typical reaction to alcohol is the body reigns slower than usual. This can be explained, again, from alcohol as the cell membrane. Neurons which in brief is the nervous system's basic building blocks, consisting of a cell body with a nucleus, one or more runners dendrites which receive signals from sensory organs or other nerve cells and a thin end AXON which the cell is in contact with other nerve cells through special links synapses. When a neuron is a cell like so many others, including cells from a beetroot fruit body, this is also encapsulated by a cell membrane. And in this sit many important proteins, including transport proteins for Na + and K + which is used when a signal is sent from a sensory cell to its target site in the brain. Alcohol will change the structure of the cell, and heeling it so that either can not be transported ions in and out or to ions themselves can get in and out. In this way the nerve cells do not maintain an artificially high concentration of one of the two ions, and thus can not spread nerve signal further. This explains why one's sensory apparatus works more slowly, and also why our pain perception is another.

Delforsøget (see purpose) is performed by beetroot thoroughly washed and pricked a hole with a fork in several places on the skin. This is so that the steam from beetroot can easily escape. In the microwave got beetroot 10 minutes. The result was surprisingly good, so now we know that you can not necessarily be low oven baked root vegetables in a conventional oven.

We can conclude from the experiment that alcohol makes it through the cell membrane which are described in the theory section, and this we can conclude from the results which clearly pointed to a leakage of beetroot dye betacyaning. In addition, with our hypothesis up in the first 6 measurements, and the last measurement and the relatively large leakage at 0% we assume is due to the aforementioned sources of error.